What Is Endometriosis?

Female Infertility

Dr. Suman

Jul 25, 2021

A lot many women sufferings from endometriosis are unaware of it. It can start very young and go till one-hit menopause. Almost one-fourth of those suffering from endometriosis have difficulty conceiving. But what is it? Will you be able to ever get pregnant with endometriosis? How to cure endometriosis? All these questions will be answered in this article. Starting first with what is endometriosis. 

What is endometriosis?

Endometriosis meaning

Endometrium tissues form the lining of the uterus. With menstruation, the layer of endometrium tissue flows out if the uterus. Some of the tissue instead of flowing out of the body flows back. It forms an abnormal growth outside the uterine cavity, it is endometriosis. 

The growth can be on the reproductive organs like the fallopian tube or ovaries. This growth can cause inflammation, scarring, and/or cysts. It can cause a lot of discomforts. 

But wait how will you know that you may have endometriosis? Let’s find it out in the next section. 

Endometriosis Symptoms

There can be a variety of symptoms. It can go unnoticed as they are common in women during menstruation. The intensity of these symptoms may vary according to the stage. But some of the red signs one should not ignore are: –

    • Severe pain in the pelvic region during menstruation
    • Heavy flow during menstrual periods
    • Lower back pain 
    • Irregular menstruation
    • Spotting
    • Abdominal fullness or cramping
    • Constipation or diarrhea
    • Chronic fatigue
    • Nausea
    • Depression or anxiety
    • Painful sexual intercourse
    • Painful bowel movement
    • Painful urination
    • Infertility

The symptoms should not be ignored and one should take medical help immediately. Early diagnosis is crucial for managing the disease well. 

How is endometriosis diagnosed?

Careful analyzing the symptoms suspecting endometriosis is the key. There are a variety of methods, some of which are: – 

  • Examination of medical history – The medical history is taken from the primary health care level to the secondary centers as well. 
  • Pelvic examination – The doctor manually feels the pelvic area. It is done in order to check any cysts or scars around the uterus. 
  • Ultrasound – High-frequency sound waves are used to create images of the inside of the body. It is done to get the best view of the reproductive organs. 
  • MRI – Ovarian endometria, adhesions, and deep nodular forms of the disease are detected by this. Mainly the growth’s location and size. It uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the body.
  • Laparoscopy – It helps in both identifying and treating the disease. The surgeon under the influence of anesthesia makes a tiny cut near the navel. After which a viewing instrument is inserted to look for abnormal growth or cysts outside the uterus.  

Stages of endometriosis

The stages of endometriosis are based on its location, depth, size, and, amount of tissue. The most common system for determining the stag was developed by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. They used a point system to determine the stage. Thus, the four stages are: –

  • Stage 1 or Minimal (1-5 points)- Few small implants may be near the organs or the tissue lining the pelvis or abdomen. The presence of scar tissue is negligible.
  • Stage 2 or Mild (6-15 points)- More and deeper implants. Some scar tissues may be there.
  • Stage 3 or Moderate (16-40 points)- More severe scarring. Many deep implants. Cyst formation in one or both ovaries and some adhesion. 
  • Stage 4 or Severe (> 40 points)- Infertility is common with this stage. Many deep implants and large cysts on the ovaries. Severe and thick adhesions. 

These are all the stages of endometriosis. The symptoms and treatment will depend on this. Also, whether you can conceive or not will also be hugely based on the stage you are in. 

How to cure endometriosis?

There is no specific treatment for endometriosis. To avoid hindrance in daily life due to the disease, doctors treat the signs. The main goal is to relieve the pain, slow or reduce the abnormal growth, preserving fertility, and preventing reoccurring of the disease. 

Common treatments for it can be broadly classified into- hormone therapy, pain medication, and surgery.

  • Hormone therapy- It focuses to lower estrogen or increase progesterone. It is done to control the hormones that promote endometriosis. This will slow the growth and activity of the endometrium tissue. 

It will also to an extent help to eliminate the pain. Some of the hormone therapies are namely; birth control pills, patches and vaginal rings, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, progestin therapy, and aromatase inhibitors.

  • Pain medication- Pain relief medicines will help the woman to go through her day-to-day life easily. It can range from over-the-counter to strong prescribed ones. Some examples could be ibuprofen, indomethacin, aspirin, or acetaminophen. 

Nonetheless, one should take the guidance of a healthcare professional. However, medicine will give temporary relief. It will not help in curing any symptoms. 

  • Surgery- Conservative surgery like laparoscopy, laparotomy, and surgery to sever pelvic nerve is the other treatment. It will provide at least short-term relief from pain due to endometriosis. For severe pain, this can be very effective. 

The type of procedure one wants to go for has to be carefully discussed. As it cannot be reversed and can affect the fertility of the woman. 

So, these are some of the possible treatments. But what about pregnancy? You may be wondering about how to get pregnant with endometriosis. Whether or not will you be able to carry a healthy pregnancy? In the next section, we will answer all these questions. 

Pregnancy with endometriosis

70% of women with mild or moderate endometriosis can easily carry a healthy pregnancy. Even the pain from endometriosis can temporarily reduce for some during pregnancy. 

But those who are having severe endometriosis can have issues with pregnancy. Endometriosis can cause adhesion in the reproductive organs causing obstacles in the process. Plus, the disease can affect the hormones responsible for reproduction as well. 

But today with this level of advancement we have a lot of options. One can opt for any of the Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). It includes in-vitro fertilization (IVF), and intrauterine insemination (IUI).  


To conclude it all, endometriosis is an abnormal growth outside the uterus. It can cause discomfort for the women. It can even affect fertility. There are a number of symptoms mentioned and should be taken care of. At what stage one is, can be determined in the diagnosis. The severity of the disease can have an effect on the fertility of a woman. But we don’t need to worry, as there are cures for the signs of the disease. Medicine and surgery can manage it very well. 


One should not wait long if they see any of the symptoms. Endometriosis can worsen with time and reduce the chance of pregnancy. Feel free to contact fertilityzilla whenever you have any suspicion of the symptoms. Early diagnosis is the key to a better cure. 

Fertilityzilla provides all forms of fertility-related diagnosis and assistance. And if you are facing endometriosis and infertility due to it, fertilityzilla is always there to fulfill your dream of becoming a parent. For any information related to IVF or other ART contact us at- or +91 8882067985. 


What does it mean to have endometriosis outside the uterus?

The endometrial tissue forms a layer outside the uterine lining. The lining thickens and sheds itself in the same way as one inside the uterus does. 

Is there a cure or treatment for endometriosis?

At present, there is no treatment for the disease. However, symptoms of endometriosis can be very well managed by either medication or surgery. It will in turn also increase the chances of conceiving. 

How are the different stages of endometriosis different?

Different stages of endometriosis determine the severity of the disease. It is based on the location depth and size of the growth. This can even predict the possibility of pregnancy of the woman. 

How many women in the world are affected by endometriosis?

Around 10% of women get affected by it at the global level. 

How is endometriosis a multi factorial disease?

It can affect any woman from any background. There is no particular reason for it to happen. Sometimes even a variety of factors like retrograde menstruation, cellular metaplasia, immunity system disorder, etc. can contribute to it.

How is endometriosis similar to the development of cancer?

In cancer, the cancer cell develops by a series of multiple hits within target genes. A similar process happens in endometriosis when the cysts or growth is formed. 


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