Male Infertility


Dr. Suman

Jun 27, 2021

What is male infertility?

Usually, 1 in 7 couples is infertile, this means they have not been able to conceive even after having unprotected intercourse for a year or longer. In half of these couples, male infertility plays a major role. Now the question arises

It is seen that infertility in men is caused due to abnormal sperm function, low sperm production, or blockage causing an issue in the delivery of sperm. There are several other factors that contribute to this problem such as injuries, illnesses, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices, and so on.  

What are the types of male infertility?

These are the most common types of male factor infertility due to which many men are not able to father their babies.

  • Obstructive Azoospermia – It is defined by very few or low sperm in the ejaculate
  • Non- Obstructive Azoospermia – It is characterized by no sperm in the men’s ejaculate
  • Oligospermia – It is the case of low sperm count
  • Ejaculation problems

What causes male infertility?

Male Infertility is caused due to problems that affect the production of sperm or how sperm travels. Nearly one-third of infertile men have an issue where they have less sperm count or abnormal working of sperm. Here are some common causes of infertility in men:

Medical Causes

Male infertility issue is caused due to several medical problems.

  • Varicocele: It is a problem of swelling in the vein that causes draining of the testicle. It is known to be a common reversible cause. Well, the exact reason for varicocele causing infertility in men is still unknown. Varicocele causes reduce sperm quality and quantity.
  • Ejaculation problem: Retrograde ejaculation happens when during orgasm semen enters the bladder instead of emerging out through the tip penis. Numerous health problems can cause retrograde ejaculation such as spinal injuries, diabetes, surgery of bladder, urethra, and prostate, and medications.
  • Hormonal imbalances: When hormonal systems like the hypothalamus, thyroid, adrenal glands, and pituitary are affected by hormonal imbalance it may cause infertility in men. 
  • Chromosome defects:  Klinefelter’s syndrome is a chromosomal defect where a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one Y and one X chromosome. This causes abnormal development of male reproductive organs.

Environmental causes

When there is over-exposure to environmental elements like chemicals, toxins, and heat it can reduce sperm production. Some of the specific causes are:

  • Industrial chemicals: Over-exposure to certain chemicals, herbicides, pesticides, and organic solvents and so on can cause reduce in sperm count.
  • Radiation or X-rays: exposure to radiation can cause decrease in sperm production, although it will to normal with time. Over exposure to radiation can cause permanent reduction in sperm count.
  • Heavy metal exposure: overexposure to lead or any other heavy metal can cause infertility.

Lifestyle, health, and other causes

Few other things can also cause infertility in male:

  • Using drugs: When anabolic steroids are taken to stimulate muscle strength and growth it can reduce sperm production. People taking cocaine and marijuana suffer from a temporary decrease in sperm quantity and quality.
  • Consuming alcohol: Consuming alcohol can lower the level of testosterone in the body that can cause erectile dysfunction besides decreasing the production of sperm. 
  • Weight: Obesity impacts fertility in many ways, such as directly impacting the sperm count and quality also it can cause hormonal changes that would cause male infertility.
  • Smoking tobacco: People who smoke may have a lower sperm count compared to people who don’t smoke. Passive smoking also affects male fertility.

These are some of the male infertility causes that are being the reason for sadness in many couples. 

What are the symptoms of male infertility?

The main symptom of male infertility is, not been able to conceive a child. Well, there may be no other obvious symptoms. There are some other general symptoms that you may notice include:

  • An issue in sexual function
  • Recurrent respiratory infections
  • Pain, lump, or swelling in the testicle area
  • Abnormal  breast growth is also known as gynecomastia
  • Lesser facial or body hair or other signs of hormonal and chromosomal abnormality
  • Lower sperm count

What are the treatments of male infertility?

Some of the common treatments include:

  • Varicoceles are repaired by surgery wherein the abnormal veins are blocked. Thus, it may result in improvement in infertility. 
  • Sometimes medication or surgery is opted to treat hormonal abnormalities.
  • In case of obstruction in sperm transport, a surgery option is opted to correct it.

Now with the advance in science if the above methods don’t work then ART (assisted reproductive techniques) provides many new options. With the help of ART, conception is even possible with men having very low or abnormal sperm. Here are some of the options provided by ART:

  • Intrauterine insemination (IUI): During the ovulation period, sperm are directly injected into the uterus. Firstly medicines are given to women to increase the number of eggs they release. 
  • In-vitro fertilization: Initially several eggs are collected from women in a “test tube” and then mixed with sperm. Then the fertilized eggs are placed in the uterus. For IVF at least some viable sperms are required. These days male infertility IVF is considered by many people.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): In this procedure, a single sperm is taken and with the help of a needle is injected into an egg. Later the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus. Even if the sperm count is very low or abnormal, an ICSI procedure can be performed.

So by opting for any of these procedures most couples can expect pregnancy up to 40 to 50% of the time. These procedures help to get male fertility back.

Which doctor to consult for male infertility?

When looking forward to which doctor to consult for male infertility in Hyderabad or any other place in India, you should check for a trained specialist in infertility. Such specialized doctors can help you in fathering your baby. 

Moreover, in case of any difficulty conceiving a pregnancy, or facing infertility, Fertilityzilla is the best solution to all your problems. We provide you with the best doctors and hospitals with the best services and world-class treatment.


Are there signs of male infertility?

There are a few signs and symptoms of male infertility and some of them are: Issue with sexual function for instance difficulty in ejaculation like only a small amount of liquid is ejaculated, difficulty in maintaining an erection also kno0wn as erectile dysfunction, in the testicle area there is pain lump or swelling.

Can male infertility be cured?

The main motive of male infertility treatment is to make the female partner pregnant. It is known that the cause of infertility could be reversible thus, later conception occurs through natural intercourse. One of the common treatments of male infertility is the repair of Varicoceles through surgery to block the abnormal veins.  

Is male infertility permanent? 

All cases of infertility in men is not permanent or untreatable.  Usually, it can be treated with either one/two or a combination of treatments.

Is male infertility common?

Well, one-third of infertility cases are usually due to male reproductive issues, the next one-third is due to female reproductive issues and the rest one-third is due to both male and female reproductive issues or because of unknown facts. 

What is the most common cause of infertility in males?

Sperm disorder is the common cause of male infertility that means when there is a problem in making healthy sperm. In such cases, sperm could be abnormal shape, immature, or unable to swim. 


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